Shri Indra Prakash Gupta: Sad News

We are very sorry and sad for the sad demise of our respected and beloved Mausaji who left us this morning at 8;;30 AM after a brief illness.
He came from a modest family of Kandhla (Muzaffarnagar ). His parents lived with him most of the time. They were also excellent, very affectionate and very caring people. Mausaji lived wonderful life and left behind a great family – Mausi ji, his sons – Sudhir (Jaipur), Sunil (California, USA), Sushil (Faridabad), and Dilip (Delhi ) and a daughter Sunita ( Toronto, Canada) ; all very nicely settled in their life.

He was very affectionate and caring person. After the death of Sushma’s mother, Madhur (Bale), younger sister of Sushma was left alone at Aligarh. He was the one who took her full responsibility; kept her with him, arranged her marriage in a nice family.
When we were living in Dehradun he was living in Rishikesh. We often met him. We always enjoyed his company and lived with him on several occasions. 

He was ever young, smiling and smart person. He achieved all the best in his life; reached at the top of his career as Chief Engineer, PWD, UP. He lived a very happy, satisfactory and successful life.
After completing the mission of this life, he left us to day for a better mission. God bless his soul in rest and peace, give all of us to bear this great loss of dear one.
He will ever be remembered for his love and care for us.



MY Respected Bhabhi ji

My respected Bhabhi ji left us to day ( 9.AM; June 1, 2017 ) for ever; feeling very sad and sorry; However, she completed the mission of her life and left for a better one.

She was a  very lucky and great person . She filled the house of mamaji with a wonderful Home ,  a big family with children, grandchildren, and great grandchildren and prosperity all around. When she joined the family, the house was very much empty only with mamaji, mamiji and Bhaiya;

She was a great lady as daughter of her parents, sister to her sisters, a wife to her husband, and mother to her children. She never failed in fulfilling her duty with responsibility in any way ,  any time. She enjoyed wonderful married life , caring for Bhaiya and Bhaiya caring for her ( they were really made for each other; it was a love marriage in those days though arranged by parents ) . She was beautiful in all respect, simple, sober and always smiling.

In the end, she stopped taking the food and medicines, she was trying to purify ( शुद्धिक्र्ण )  before departing from this world to HIS world. She was fortunate dying as Suhagin ( सुहागिन )  leaving behind her healthy husband to take care of the rest.

I had wonderful time living with her, enjoyed her full affection, love , care and confidence. She will ever remain in my memory.

INAUGURAL lecture by Prof. Mabawonku

Prestigious Inaugural Lecture by my friend and colleague , University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria):





An inaugural lecture delivered
at the University of Ibadan
on Thursday, 20 April, 2017

Professor of Library and Information Science
Faculty of Education
University of Ibadan
Ibadan, Nigeria

Ibadan University Press
Publishing House
University of Ibadan
Ibadan, Nigeria.
© University of Ibadan, 2017
Ibadan, Nigeria
First Published 2017

All Rights Reserved
Printed by: Ibadan University Printery
The Vice-Chancellor, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Admini-stration), Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic), Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research, Innovation and Strategic Partnerships), Registrar, Librarian, Provost of the College of Medicine, Dean of the Faculty of Education, Dean of the Postgraduate School, Deans of other Faculties and of Students, Distinguished Ladies and Gentlemen.
It is with great sense of humility that I thank the University Administration for giving me the opportunity to deliver this inaugural lecture on behalf of the Faculty of Education. Coming so close to my retirement from the University, it seems to be more of a valedictory than an inaugural lecture! This is the 40th lecture on behalf of the Faculty of Education and the eighth from the Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies.
My mentors and colleagues who gave inaugural lectures before have all emphasized the importance of information in national development. The first lecture by Professor Adetowun Ogunsheye (1975), titled, “The Records of Civilization”, focused on the various media of communi-cation and how they contributed to global development. Professor Bimpe Aboyade’s lecture in 1981, titled, “The Making of an Informed Society”, highlighted the importance of access to information in the transformation of the society. Professor W.O. Aiyepeku (1989), in his inaugural lecture titled, “Developing Information for Development Information”, highlighted the value of information in national development. The lecture by Professor B.C. Nzotta was titled, “Information, Communication and Cultural Engineering”. In 2003, Professor Phelomena Fayose presented an inaugural lecture titled, “Children, Teacher and Librarians: Developing Information Conscious Children”. The next lecture by Professor G.O. Alegbeleye was titled, “Past Imperfect, Present Continuous, Future Perfect: The Challenges of Preserving Recorded Information in Nigeria”. Professor Morayo Atinmo (2012) titled her lecture, “Including the Excluded: Provision of Equitable Access to Information”.
My teaching and research activities in the last 40 years have influenced the choice of a topic that focuses on information, media, communication, and technology adoption by selected groups of people and professionals in the society.

At the Beginning
Since the beginning of Creation, man has communicated. Humans were created with the unique ability to employ speech for communication (Lieberman 1998). From the Christian perspective, with which we are familiar, we can assume that Adam was the first human to communicate and that he probably did so with Eve. The Holy Bible states that God spoke to them from the very beginning of their existence in the Garden of Eden (Genesis 1: 28-30).
Communication has existed in various forms since man appeared on earth. One of the most well-known forms of primitive communication is cave paintings created around 130,000 B.C. Before writing began 30,000–40,000 years ago, men drew graffiti and paintings on rocks and walls of caves. Later on, clay tokens of different shapes were used to indicate agricultural products. These were referred to as cuneiform writing which were usually signs, sometimes on clay tablets. The Scribes engraved shapes of objects and signs by carving them on the tablets. Over the centuries, cuneiform writing spread throughout the areas occupied by the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians. Hieroglyphic writing emerged, and much later, the alphabets. The Egyptians, Chinese, Greeks and the Italians contributed significantly to the history of writing. The real inventors of the alphabet, which we are familiar with today, remains unknown, but what is note-worthy is that it has revolutionized communication among humans.
Some examples of early writings are shown in figures 1–6. Some of the forms of writing are: petroglyphs, pictograms, cuneiforms, and alphabets.


Fig. 1: Clay tablet (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).

Fig. 2: Petroglyphs from HYPERLINK “” \o “Häljesta (page does not exist)”Häljesta, Sweden. Nordic Bronze Age.
Fig. 3: Pictograms (Pictograph from 1510 telling a story of coming of HYPERLINK “” \o “Missionaries”missionaries to HYPERLINK “” \o “Hispaniola”Hispaniola).
Fig. 4: Ideograms.

Fig. 5: 26th century BC Sumerian cuneiform script in Sumerian language, listing gifts to the high priestess of HYPERLINK “” \o “Adab (city)”Adab on the occasion of her election.

Fig. 6: Alphabet: A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 HYPERLINK “,_or_an_Universal_Dictionary_of_Arts_and_Sciences” \o “Cyclopaedia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences”Cyclopaedia.

After the use of the clay tablets, there have been many significant changes in communication between people, and especially in writing. Over time, security of information became important to human survival and issues of privacy and confidentiality came to the fore. The tablets and other forms of writing previously described often contained records of valuable information which had to be securely kept for posterity and national development. For example, the Sumerians, Babylonians and Eblaites all had their own clay tablet libraries. We shall later in this lecture consider the role of libraries in information, knowledge and record keeping for posterity.
What is Information?
Marshall McLuhan, the communication theorist states: “In this electronic age, we see ourselves being translated more and more into the form of information, moving toward the technological extension of consciousness”( McLuhan 1994).
There is no widely accepted definition or theoretical conception of the word ‘information’. The concept, “information” is of great importance to all the information disciplines. Perhaps for that reason, it is a term that has been defined in countless ways, over many decades. Shera (1972) defined information as “that which is transmitted by the act or process of communication. It may be a message, signal or stimulus. It assures response in the receiving organism and therefore, possessed a response potential”.

McCreative and Rice (1999) reviewed concepts of inform-ation proposed over the years and summarized them thus:

Information as a representation of knowledge (information is stored knowledge e.g. in books, electronics media etc);
Information as data in the environment as it can be obtained from a range of environmental stimuli and phenomena;
Information as part of the communication process;
Information as a resource or a commodity which is transmitted in a message from sender to the receivers.

According to Aina (2004), the term could be viewed and defined from many perspectives, depending on the discipline: “the telecommunications engineers associate information with bits and data while librarians associate information with recorded knowledge.” The focus in this lecture will be more on information as perceived and used in the Library and Information Science (LIS) profession.
The value of access to timely and relevant information cannot be overemphasized at this electronic age. It depicts equivocally that Man not only needs information to survive but that in the interaction between individuals, information is very important. Information is power. On obtaining information, the individual groups and organizations would have to make the appropriate use of it daily in decision making. This happens on a daily basis to the individual and to corporate organizations and the government. Everybody in the society has information needs and diverse methods of seeking the information. All professionals need information that is relevant to their professional practice. Extensive research has been undertaken globally to determine the types, sources and information behaviour of individuals and several groups of people, based on socio-economic and other factors.
Information and knowledge are inseparable twins in the field of library and information science. Evers and Gerke (2005) define knowledge as “information that is relevant, actionable and based, at least, partially on experience”. It has also been described as the driving force for innovation and development. Information and knowledge form the foundation of any nation’s development. They have to be shared through communication among humans.

Media as Information Communication Channels
Information has to be communicated from one person or group of persons to the other. On receiving a message, the receiver interprets it accordingly and makes the appropriate use of the information received. However, research has shown that the way information is communicated is important if the information is to be received and interpreted correctly. Each time information (message) is passed on to another person (receiver), how it is interpreted is dependent on the effectiveness of the selected channel of communication. Thus, the medium is a crucial factor in effective communication of information and knowledge transfer.
According to, media are the collective outlets or tools that are used to HYPERLINK “” \o “Recording”store and deliver HYPERLINK “” \o “Information”information or HYPERLINK “” \o “Data”data to a large number of people. The types of media are: print media, electronic media, personal media or mass media, The term ‘media’ in its modern application relating to communication channels is often attributed to the communications theorist, McLuhan (1994), who emphasised that “the medium is the message”. The medium used is very crucial in terms of how the message is received and interpreted. Two theories will be described in this paper: The Media Richness Theory (MRT) and the Media Naturalness Theory (MNT).
The Media Richness Theory is used to rank and evaluate the richness of certain communication media such as: HYPERLINK “” \o “Phone calls”phone calls, HYPERLINK “” \o “Video conferencing”video conferencing, and HYPERLINK “” \o “Email”email. For example, a phone call cannot reproduce visual HYPERLINK “” \o “Social cue”social cues such as HYPERLINK “” \o “Gesture”gestures, which makes it a less rich communication medium than HYPERLINK “” \o “Video conferencing”video conferencing, which affords the transmission of HYPERLINK “” \o “Gesture”gestures and HYPERLINK “” \o “Body language”body language. The Media Richness Theory explains that richer, personal communication media are generally more effective for communicating equivocal issues than leaner, less HYPERLINK “” \o “Rich media”rich media (Daft and Lengel 1986).
A primary driver in selecting a communication medium for a particular message is to reduce equivocality or possible misinterpretation of a message. If a message is equivocal, it is unclear and thus more difficult for the receiver to decode. The more equivocal a message, the more cues and data needed to interpret it correctly (Dennis, et al. 1999).
In their 1988 article regarding Media Richness Theory, Daft and Lengel state that, “the more learning that can be pumped through a medium, the richer the medium”. According to them, media richness is a function of characteristics including the following:

Ability to handle multiple information cues simul-taneously;
Ability to facilitate rapid feedback;
Ability to establish a personal focus;
Ability to utilize natural language.

The Media Naturalness Theory (MNT) was developed by HYPERLINK “” \o “Ned Kock”Ned Kock. This theory is sometimes referred to as the psychobiological model, or Compensatory Adaptation Theory (Daft 1987). It has been used to understand human behaviour toward technology in various contexts, such as: education, knowledge transfer, and communication in virtual environments (El-Shinnawy and Markus 1998). The Media Naturalness Theory argues that since our Stone Age hominid ancestors had communicated primarily face-to-face, evolutionary pressures have led to the development of a brain that is consequently designed for that form of communication (Sallnas, Rassmus-Grohn and Sjostrom 2000). Media Naturalness Theory places the face-to-face medium at the center of a one-dimensional scale of naturalness, where deviations to the left or right are associated with decreases in naturalness
The two media theories described have no doubt added credence to the link between information communication and the appropriateness of media communication channels in information and knowledge transfer among individuals and groups of people.

Multimedia Use in Communication
The term ‘media’ has achieved a broader meaning nowadays as compared to what obtained some decades ago. They include the mass media, media for small group and interpersonal communication. Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, please permit me in this lecture, to focus on media use for learning, teaching, research and community service. By the middle of the 20th Century and especially in the mid 1970s when I was employed and started lecturing in the University, the media resources that were emphasized in teaching and learning, and consequently for storage in the media sections of libraries were: graphics (e.g. maps, charts), pictures, realia, the radio, audio recordings, and projected media like, photographic slides, filmstrips, overhead projection transparencies, motion picture films, the opaque projection medium, television and computers to some extent. Some of the projectors that were used are shown in figures 7 and 8.

Fig. 7: The overhead projector.

Fig. 8: Slide and opaque projector.
The media were effective in various ways as they made teaching and learning easier as objects were easier to observe, learning was more realistic, interesting and ambiguities were reduced in teaching in the cognitive, affective, and the psychomotor domains. Audiovisuals and other multimedia materials for information communication had to be managed, regularly revised and maintained while they were safely preserved like the tablets in the Ancient Times.

Information, Media and the Libraries
As Man recorded and transmitted information through the tablets in Ancient Times, so the desire to preserve information and knowledge increased. This undoubtedly gave rise to the development of libraries, the third of the tripod comprising information, knowledge and the library. This lecture will not be wholesome if the theme is not linked up with the role of the library as the gatekeeper and bridge between information, communication media, knowledge and technology. All human knowledge is expected to be preserved for posterity in the libraries. According to Gaiman (2016): “If you do not value libraries then you do not value information or culture or wisdom. You are silencing the voices of the past and you are damaging the future.”
Libraries in whatever form have existed for centuries. The nature of library resources have also changed. Here are some examples of modern libraries. The Library of Congress is the national library of the United States of America. It was established by an Act of Congress in 1800. It was originally meant to provide reference service for the Congress (legislators). Today, the copyright law of the USA makes it mandatory for all publishers and copyright applicants to send to the Library of Congress, two copies of their work. The collections include more than 38 million books and other printed materials, 3.6 million recordings, 14 million photographs, 5.5 million maps, 8.1 million pieces of sheet music and 70 million manuscripts in 460 languages; more than 69 million manuscripts; the largest rare book collection in North America; and the world’s largest collection of legal materials, films, maps, sheet music and sound recordings. (HYPERLINK “”

Fig. 9: The Library of Congress.

Fig. 10: The Interior of The Library of Congress, Washington, DC, USA.
Another notable repertoire of knowledge is the British Library, which is the national library of the United Kingdom and the second largest library in the world. The library has a collection of well over 150 million items from many countries. Items are in many languages and in many formats, both print and digital: books, manuscripts, journals, newspapers, magazines, sound and music recordings, videos, play-scripts, patents, databases, maps, stamps, prints, drawings. It has substantial holdings of manuscripts and historical items dating back as far as 2000 BC (HYPERLINK “”
Back home in Nigeria, the development of libraries started from the individual level with the collection of Henry Carr who had a collection of books totaling 18,000 at his home called ‘The Haven’ in Tinubu Square, Lagos Island. The National Library of Nigeria came into existence by the National Library Act passed in September, 1964.  This Act was later replaced and substituted with the National Library Decree No. 29 of 1970. It is the giant memory of the nation, her intellectual storehouse and data bank for learning and remembering process. The collection of the National Library of Nigeria is estimated to be about 8 million volumes (National Library of Nigeria 2014). Part of the collections of the National Library is presently housed at the University of Ibadan.
Although the National Library of Nigeria Act expects all publishers to deposit three copies of their publications to the National Library and one of which is to be sent to the University of Ibadan Library, the provision is hardly observed and the law is not enforced. Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, it is an opportunity to draw the attention of this august body of learned people to live up to the expectations so that in future, Nigeria could have a rich depository multi-media and technology driven national library that can compare with others globally.
Other types of libraries, like the public, special, academic and school libraries are also knowledge repertoires which time would not allow us to give much attention to in this lecture. Some of them already have rich multi-media collections with access to the Internet and electronic databases and other resources. University libraries are in the forefront in all respects. Some Nigerian university libraries are presented in figures 11-13.

Fig. 11: Obafemi Awolowo University Digital Library.

Fig. 12: Covenant University Electronic Library.

Fig. 13: E-Classroom, Kenneth Dike Library, University of Ibadan.

Information, Media and Technology
In the Modern Age, technology has been integrated into the communication process such that all information resources are available in printed and electronic forms. Thus, in the modern library, the library and information professional has performed roles of the information specialist, information scientist, knowledge manager, documentalist, media specialist, publisher, archivist, etc. There is no doubt that, globally, technology is now a part of human day-to-day existence. We are indeed in the Technological Age. Technology is pervasive in all spheres of life and daily existence. It is adopted generously in medical practice, health, governance, socials, worship and in the classrooms at all levels of education.
The term ICT is used to express the hardware and software usability for information transportation and conducting communications linked by a vast array of technological protocols. It also covers internet service provision, information technology equipment and services, media and broadcasting, library and documentation centers, network based information services and other related communication activities (Annie and Achugbue 2009). The tablet is one of the ICT tools commonly used today. The modern tablet could be defined as a ‘wireless touch screen personal computer that is smaller than a notebook but larger than a smartphone’. Modern tablets are built with wireless internet or local area networks and a variety of software applications, including business applications, web browsers and games (Technopedia 2017). According to Webopedia (2017), a tablet is a type of HYPERLINK “”notebook computer that has a screen on which the user can write using finger and swipe actions or by using a special-purpose pen, or HYPERLINK “”stylus. Examples are displayed in figure 14.

Fig. 14: Images of a tablet.


Access to the Internet is a major gain from the ICT era of this age. Internet access has become one of the greatest advancements in information and communication technology with changes in the mode of information gathering, storage, retrieval and dissemination (Akintunde 2006). The emergence of e-publications, digital libraries, web tools applications for libraries, consortium practices and lately, cloud computing has further led to developments in the practice of the library profession.
Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, are the technologies being accepted by most people in teaching, learning, service, and consequently in library management? What are the global perceptions on application of IT and how have we adapted to the global trends in Nigeria? There are many theories on acceptance and use of technology. They aim to prove that there are factors that could promote use or non-use of new technologies or innovations. I will give a few examples.

The Diffusion of Innovations Theory
Everett Rogers (1931–2004) was well known for the book titled, Diffusion of Innovation (1962) in which he explains the theory of how innovations and ideas spread across the populations. He says, in a social system, the innovation is communicated by the process of diffusion. Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system (Everett Roger 1961). An Innovation is an idea, practice, or object perceived as new by an individual or other unit of adoption (Rogers 2003). Diffusion of innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread through cultures. The graphic representation of the contribution of Rogers (1962) on Diffusion of Innovation is as presented in figure 15.


Fig. 15: Diffusion of innovation.
According to the author, there are five main categories of adoption/adopters. They are:

Early adopters,
Early majority,
Late majority, and

In a detailed explanation of categories of users of technologies, the first category of Diffusion of Innovation Theory explains that there are some users who are cosmopolitan in look and will always be willing to invent ideas or technologies to teach, transact business, maintain records or provide information services. It also explains that there are some that could be classified as early adopters who are already aware of the need to change and so are very comfortable adopting new ideas. A typical example of this is my profession where the libraries and library schools have accepted the use of technologies to teach, process books, and journals, as well as rendering library services.
The third group of adopters of technology could be classified into early majority who are rare leaders and the strategies to appeal to them to use technologies include success stories and evidences. The fourth category is late majority. They are people that are always skeptical of change and will only adopt an innovation after it has been tried by the majority. Strategies to appeal to this population include information on how many other people have tried the innovation and have adopted it successfully. There are some classified into laggards because they are conservative in nature and they fear to use computers and other information and communication technologies whether they are available or not. Today there are still some lecturers, librarians, records managers, archivists, administrators and students all over Nigeria, who cannot use ICTs like computers and fail to exploit most of the facilities on their phones and other technologies.
The Technology Acceptance Model 1 was proposed by Davis in 1989. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM 1) (fig. 16) describes how users have come to accept and use information technology/system. The proponent of the model argued that when users are presented with technology (ies) a number of factors could influence their use or lack of use of the technology. The identified factors include the user’s perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived-ease-of-use (PEOU).

Fig. 16: The technology acceptance Model -1. (Source: Davis, F. 1989).

Perceived usefulness describes the degree to which a user perceives that using information technology will enable him/her to achieve gain (or desired result) in a given task. The perceived ease-of-use explains the degree to which a user perceives that the technologies are very easy to use as a means of achieving the desire results. A typical example of this is the introduction of electronic/smart board to enhance teaching and learning in the classroom situation. The lecturer must perceive the electronic/smart board to be useful in teaching a large audience, easy to use because it does not involve more than availability of electricity and prepared slides to teach. On a social platform, many professionals (librarians, teachers, traders, lecturers, students, engineers and others) have often embraced the use of social media such as WhatsApp, Facebook, YouTube, LinkedIn, among others, to communicate, entertain and share ideas because of the perceived ease of use and usefulness to them.
Apart from TAM1, there are TAM 2 and TAM 3 with focus on the influence of the following on technology acceptance: social influence, cognitive instructional factors, anchors and adjustment factors. The last in the series is the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) which emphasizes that individual’s use of technologies could not be due to perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use alone. Rather, other factors like availability of technologies and other infrastructure, such as constant power supply (electricity), internet facilities, high bandwidth, employer and stakeholder or government support, finance, among other factors, could affect the use of information and communication technology. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) is presented in figure 17.

Fig. 17: Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Source: Venkatesh et al. 2003.

State of Technology Acceptance in Nigeria
Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, over the centuries, the world has advanced in the technology of recording information from the clay tablet, through the graphic, printed, projected still and motion media to the electronic media of recording knowledge, and now to the Information and Communication Technologies which have encapsulated all the former methods of information and knowledge documentation processes.
About twenty five years after Tim Berners-Lee made the World Wide Web available to the public, the Internet has almost become an integral part of the daily life of many all over the world. Today, an obvious aspect of technology acceptance globally is the pervasive use of mobile technologies, especially the cell phone, many of which have facilities for internet access and the social media. Access to the Internet and use by many across socio-economic strata is also an evidence of increasing use of information and communications technology. Figures 18 and 19 show the rate of Internet and social media use globally and especially in Africa and Nigeria.
The internet penetration in Africa is 28.7% which is below the world’s average penetration. This shows that Africa is still behind in internet penetration. Africa which is 16.2% of the world’s population only consists of 9.3% of the world’s internet users. There is still a long way to go.

Fig. 18: Cellphone Ownership in Africa Internet Use in Africa.

Fig. 19: Internet users in Africa.

Source: Internet World Stats – 340,783,342 Internet Users in Africa estimated for June 30, 2016
Copyright © 2016, Miniwatts Marketing Group

According to the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), the number of internet users on the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) networks has increased from 76,322, 802 in 2014 to 81,892,840 in January 2015 with 45% of their mobile users using Whatsapp ( 2016). In terms of smartphone penetration, Nigeria already has one of the continent’s highest smartphone penetration rates and that number will get even higher as smartphone subscriptions are expected to reach 95 million by 2019. The graphical penetration of smartphone was produced by Pew Research Centre. Also, the statistics of the most popular social networks worldwide gives a clear picture with Facebook reigning supreme with over 1,590 million active users; it holds an 18% market share, 7% more than its closest competitor, WhatsApp.
Nigerians have continued to partake in the global technological advancement. In the health sector and particularly in hospitals, ICTs are deployed for diagnosis, surgery, training, teaching and research. E-governance is fast becoming the norm globally. In the economic sector, ICTs drive the service and product promotion. Coming closer to the education sector, there has been an appreciable level of technology acceptance among students at all levels and many of the teachers. The social media are some of the more popular technologies in use today. Some of the more popular are: Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp and virtual worlds.
Social media are the computer-mediated tools which allow people or companies to create, share, or exchange information, career interests, ideas, pictures/videos in virtual communities and networks. Social media differ from traditional media in terms of quality, reach, frequency, usability, immediacy and permanence. Baruah (2012) described social media as the web-based and mobile technologies adopted in turning the communication into an interactive dialogue. They are used socially and to transact business among people who have presence on the respective platforms.
According to Cable News Network (CNN) (2014), 100 million people were using Facebook each month across Africa and over 80% of them accessed the platform via mobile technology and that figure has now jumped to over 120 million. Specifically, 4.5 million of Facebook users are based in Kenya, 15 million in Nigeria, and 12 million in South Africa. Overall, around 9% of Africans use social media, with South Africans among the world leaders in time spent on social networks with an average of 3.2 hours a day, compared to a global average of 2.4 hours.
Research findings have shown that most of those who use the social media do not use them for academic, research, teaching, learning and professional functions. Many use the media for socials as the name implies. Coinciding with the Social Media Week (SMW) Lagos 2016, NOIPolls released a report which sought to gauge the perception of Nigerians on social media usage and the prevalence of online dating in the country. According to the survey, Facebook is the leading online dating platform in Nigeria with 72 percent usage, followed by WhatsApp (15 percent), 2go (8 percent) and Badoo (5 percent).
Majority of Nigerians on social media Facebook and Whatsapp are in all the six geopolitical zones. While the youths are more active on Facebook, adults above 61 tend to go for WhatsApp. The use of professional platforms like Linkedln is very low and age group 26-35 years which are more active on this platform, are likely the professionals (NOIPolls 2016). A major characteristic of social media is the advantage of communicating instantly with a large number of people across the world through any of the chains. A revolution can be catalyzed covertly through the social media. Many have also employed advanced technology in photography to create visuals and circulate quotes of doubtful authenticity/integrity just to pass on some messages.
Do lecturers at the tertiary institutions apply ICTs in the mandatory teaching, research and service functions? Do librarians deploy technologies in performing their routine tasks and rendering service to their clients?

Social Media Use for Teaching, learning and Research
Among lecturers in higher institutions of learning, the Internet has been found to play a very vital role in research and teaching (Kaur 2006; Oliver 2002). It is evident from the literature that many lecturers in the higher institutions use the internet for their teaching, research as well as a communication tool. They do access the Internet through cybercafé, personal computers, ipods (phones), among others (Al-Ansain 2006; Igun 2006; Ani, Edem and Ottong 2010; Owoyemi and Abayomi 2013; Ogunrewo and Odusina 2010; Igbineweka and Ahmed 2014). However, it has been observed that application of the Internet into the academic environment for teaching, research and learning could still be rated low in Nigeria and the platform is not being used as expected. Many lecturers are still not using the Internet for teaching, research and learning activities (Onasanya et al. 2010; Adeyemi 2013; Okereke 2014; Owusu-Ansah et al. 2015).
Several studies have been conducted to examine the use of social media tools among students and results show that students use social media tools such as Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, YouTube among others, both for academic and entertainment purposes (Ekeh, Omekwu and Odoh 2014; Musa 2011; Ebersole 2005; Audu 2006; Badu and Markwei 2005; Luambano and Nawe 2004; Uwaifo and Azonobi 2014). It was found that social media tools have positive influence on students’ academic performances; they are helpful and convenient for online discussions and communi-cation with colleagues and their lecturers.
However, studies have also indicated negative influence of social media use on the academic performance of students. It has been indicated that students are prone to have low GPA, and poor writing skills because of abbreviations they use when communicating, addiction and spending too much time on social media, watching pornographies, among others (Haq and Chand 2012; Junco 2012a; Gafni and Deri 2012; Ahmed 2011; Igbeneweka and Ahmed 2014).

Social Media Use in Libraries
Library and information professionals nowadays provide many services to users, which are mainly technology-driven. There are digital libraries all over. Many libraries have digitized their records and there are Institutional Repositories (IRs) in universities. Apart from the library management system, cloud computing is being adopted for record management in many libraries. Many libraries use mobile web, and social media platforms to contact and disseminate information to their clientele.
Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, wherever you read in the media that students graduate with First Class Honours degree without visiting the university library, it does not mean that they have not used the library resources. Rather, technology adoption has enabled libraries to provide access to their resources without physical presence in the libraries. Similarly, many library resources (including full text, databases, theses and other digital records) are available and could be accessed virtually. Librarians are the original ‘search engines’ who collate, organize and disseminate information and knowledge in usable form! All of the students are still regular users of libraries whether they acknowledge it or not!

Issues in Technology Adoption
There is hardly an invention that would not open up some attendant issues and challenges. Some of the major issues arising from technology adoption (especially ICT use) in developing economies and especially in Nigeria include: ethical use of information, cost, sustenance, government policy, infrastructure and low bandwidth. Issues in information ethics include access to timely information devoid of discrimination and considering human right; accuracy, which is the correctness of data or information provided and used, censorship, ‘an act by means of which information in the public domain is officially controlled for moral, social ideological or political reasons’ (Malam and Bester 2014). Other moral issues are: intellectual property rights and cyber ethics. Acts of plagiarism, especially of digital content, is now at an incredibly high scale. Plagiarism is so rampant nowadays among students, teachers, scholars and researchers that it is giving the academic community much concern. Even though some plagiarism detector software are now being used by publishers and higher institutions, people are still not mindful of the consequences of being detected and the likely sanctions.
Technology use and sustenance are expensive. In developing countries, the cost of maintaining and replacing software and equipment, especially in classrooms and libraries is prohibitive. The government at all levels has to bridge the gap between the divide and to provide the enabling environment through proactive policies and infrastructural development. Over the years, some of the inhibitors to media resources use in instruction have been: irregular supply of electricity and funding to sustain technology use (Mabawonku 1992). The situation still persists and is probably getting worse. Other inhibitors are lack of experience in media and technology use, and management of the resources (Idowu and Mabawonku 1999). Although the situation is not devoid of technical and infrastructural challenges, most especially in sub-Saharan African countries (Nigeria inclusive), the fact still remains that technology has come to stay and will continue to chart the direction of development in all spheres of life.

My Contribution to Knowledge
Research and Publications
In this section, the focus will be on only the research activities that are related to the topic of this lecture, which is on the application of technology for teaching, research and scholarly activities, and by practising information professionals.

Use of Instructional Media in Teaching and Learning
Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, my first exposure in the realm of media resources production and use was as a graduate assistant at Michigan State University in 1975. I worked with other, graduate students from Africa in conjunction with Ms Mary Johnson, Carolyn Jeffery and Professor Joanne Eicher to produce multi-media packages for American youths. The project was financed by the 4-H Youth Educational program of the Cooperative Extension Service Unit of Michigan State University, USA. Three books with fact sheets and multimedia packages (Mabawonku 1977a, 1977b, 1977c) were produced on African clothing, and grooming, crafts and foods of West Africa. The experience, no doubt, prepared me for teaching of audiovisual media courses and production and use of media in teaching in LARIS Department in 1976 when I was employed.
On getting appointment in my Department, I conducted a study on audiovisual media availability and use in Nigerian schools and higher institutions of learning. I carried out some studies on media use in instruction (Mabawonku 1977d, 1987, 1992, 1993). They focused on how to develop functional instructional media centres and also highlighted the deterrents to media use for instruction in the classrooms and the attitude of students to media use in learning and instruction. Media and ICT use for distance learning were studied and reported by Mabawonku (2003). The study found that lecturers and students in the Nigerian universities which were studied were willing to use media and technology for teaching and learning. Institutional support and environ-mental factors were found to be major inhibitors to media and ICT use. More recently, Adetimirin and Mabawonku (2016) studied the use of ICTs by students to determine the relationship among some socio-economic factors (gender, age and monthly allowance) and use of ICTs by 1,702 undergraduates in seven Nigerian universities. ICT use was significantly associated with gender, age and monthly allowance. Strategies to encourage higher levels of ICT use, such as gender and age group specific strategies were discussed.

Media and ICT Adoption by Information Professionals
Academic libraries are supposed to be the nerve centres of the institutions which they serve. My studies in the 1980s showed that some academic libraries had audiovisual media which they stored and preserved for staff and students’ use. In some of the institutions, the materials are stored in a separate building (Mabawonku 1981, 1987), and the universities had more media resources. With the emergence of ICT, most of the non-print materials have been captured and stored in electronic forms. But there was still the urgent need to have more electronic resources and databases in the libraries.
A study on multi-media resources collection and management was conducted among 22 academic research and university libraries in the 1990s to determine ownership and use of computers. The findings revealed that computers were used extensively by librarians for records and information management and those bibliographic databases were available and used by the librarians, lecturers and researchers. Other studies (Idowu and Mabawonku 1999; (Mabawonku 2009) have shown that many special research libraries seem to have placed higher premium on media resources collection and management. More recently, the study by Obasola and Mabawonku (2013) on assessment of digital access control methods used by selected academic libraries in South-west Nigeria confirms the deployment of information technology for information access and use on Nigerian academic libraries.

Information Behaviour of Different Groups
Everybody in the society has information needs and they have diverse methods of seeking the information. All professionals need information that is relevant to their professional practice. For example, among lawyers in Nigeria, their needs include obtaining information for self-development. The library was indicated as their most consulted source for job related information (Haruna and Mabawonku 2001).
Information needs and provision to policy makers were studied and useful reports were made on providing information and development literature for policy/decision makers in government and the private sector (Mabawonku 2001; Mabawonku and Oladele 2001). These researches conducted in Nigeria proved that library and information centres serving special groups, were recognized sources of information for policy advocacy and aimed to contribute to national development through advancement of frontiers of knowledge.
Using a study population of 253 artisans, the information seeking behaviour of artisans in Ibadan, Nigeria, was investigated (Mabawonku 2004). It was discovered that their needs were mainly on: health, finance and security. They relied on neighbours, friends, the radio and television media as sources of information. In a study by Mabawonku (2006), access to information and the use by women in Nigeria’s public service was investigated to determine their information needs. The needs were job related but also very much on home management, economic and social matters. Recommendation were made on how to improve access and use of job related information.

Access to Information and Productivity
Studies on the relationship between information resources utilization and professional effectiveness attributes of legal practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria, revealed that the number of papers written/published by the subjects, cases won, awards, promotions citation of current and relevant authorities at law courts and the rating by colleagues, were related to the practitioners’ access to and use of relevant information (Haruna and Mabawonku 2000; Haruna and Mabawonku 2001).
In another study of academic staff, it was established that research productivity of lecturers in faculties of law in Nigerian universities was higher in journal articles and conference proceedings publications when they had access to and utilized various information resources (Anyaogu and Mabawonku 2014). The study reported significant positive correlation between research productivity of the lecturers sampled and the use of legal information resources.

Media and ICT Use for Documentation of Indigenous Knowledge and Health Information Provision
Considering that I taught courses on oral history and indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) in the Department, some studies were conducted on indigenous practices in Nigeria and how they are documented and preserved in libraries (Mabawonku and Atinmo 1980; Mabawonku 1989). A paper on my research efforts was presented at the World Congress on Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Pretoria, South Africa (Mabawonku 2002). Oral history and tradition were found to be documented and stored in libraries on subjects ranging from; festivals rites, rituals, deities, arts, crafts, poetry, customs, dance, music, folk tales, proverbs, etc; indigenous knowledge systems on agriculture, medicine, economic and social matters.
The extent of use of media resources for health information provision was investigated (Mabawonku and Atinmo 1980; Mabawonku 1998). The studies were updated recently (Ebijuwa and Mabawonku 2015). The recent study focused on documentation and use of indigenous knowledge by practitioners of alternative healthcare in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study revealed that practitioners of alternative healthcare use indigenous knowledge in the provision of primary healthcare. The practitioners documented their indigenous knowledge in books, audio and video recordings, drawings and photographs.

Access to Information and Information Literacy Skills
Considering that the Internet has opened up access to a large quantity of information, it is needful for researchers to possess information literacy skills to be able to access just the required information and within a short time. Okiki and Mabawonku (2013a, 2013b) found that academics in Nigerian federal universities possessed high information literacy skills and recommended that in order to sustain the academic staff information literacy skills, constant training of academics on information literacy skills acquisition was essential.
A research on information retrieval skills of under-graduates and their use of library electronic resources in Nigerian universities (Ekenna and Mabawonku 2013), revealed that there was low use of e-resources by undergraduates and this was due to lack of information retrieval skills. Recommendations were made on how librarians and lecturers could improve the skills of the students.

ICT Use for Research and Scholarly Publishing
Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, one of the greatest benefits of advances in ICTs and the application is in the area of research and scholarly publishing. The “publish or perish” cliché is still as valid today as decades ago. Academics and researchers are expected to advance knowledge through research. Access to literature has therefore become crucial. In a study by Aina and Mabawonku (1997), researchers and academics in the information profession were found to have cited literature from journals published in the USA, the UK, South Africa and Nigeria in that order. Another study carried out also focused on the nature of publications by librarians according to the types of libraries where they worked (Aina and Mabawonku 1998). There is an urgent need to provide more access to global literature for Nigerian scholars. This will in turn improve their research and publication output.

Outreach Services
African Network for Information Ethics
Some of the major issues arising for ICT use and global access to information as discussed earlier in this lecture, are the issues of privacy, access, accuracy, plagiarism, and intellectual property. Some African scholars formed the African Network on Information Ethics (ANIE) ten (10) years ago. The Network is funded by the University of Wisconsin, USA, University of Pretoria, South Africa and the South African Government Department of Telecommunication. The Africa Centre of Excellence on Information Ethics, based at the University of Pretoria, has organized series of activities with the aim of promoting ethical use of information in research, governance, information seeking, access and provision. There is the need to reduce the scourge of plagiarism (especially the cut and paste syndrome) in the academic community. Awareness about the danger to scholarship is being encouraged. I participated at the conference in Uganda in 2015 at which some guidelines were proposed on how to promote ethical use of information in the academic community. I also conducted a study with a colleague at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria to determine what could be responsible for the high level of plagiarism among students at the University of Ibadan. Findings showed that the students were aware that plagiarism is a crime but they still went ahead to plagiarize (Ilesanmi and Mabawonku 2016).
Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, it is a great pleasure to announce to this forum that courses have been produced and recommended for inclusion in the curricular of LIS and other information related programmes. I have participated at the conferences and workshops on ethics of information in the last decade at Kampala, Uganda, Gaborone, Botswana, and Johannesburg, South Africa.

Journal Publishing
Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, I have served on the editorial boards of some scholarly journals in the last twenty years. One of the problems encountered by scholarly journal publishers in Africa is sustenance.  Sustenance requires adequate funding, planning, commitment on the part of the editorial board members and the management.  Many local journals often last less than five years before they go into extinction (Aina and Mabawonku 1996).  But Professor Lenrie Aina and I have managed and published the African Journal of Library Archives and Information Science (AJLAIS) on schedule since April 1991. He is the Managing Editor/Publisher and I am the Publishing Editor of this privately owned and managed scholarly journal in the profession. With other scholars in Africa we have collaborated to attain the level of success on the journal. Today, it is one of the top rated academic journals in Africa and the only library and information science journal in Africa that is listed by the world acclaimed Thomson/ISI Web of Science and one of five journals published in Nigeria which are covered by the Web of Science.  The journal is indexed and abstracted by seven international indexing and abstracting services.  AJLAIS has the highest h-index and g-index among major library and information science journals in Africa.

Training on Skills in Writing and Publishing
Series of training workshops and conferences were organized on skills in scholarly writing and management of journals. The Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Development (CTA) Wageningen, Netherlands, sponsored a training course on the management agricultural and scientific journals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia in 1998. Participants were drawn from all over the continent. The International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications (INAASP), UK also sponsored a training course on library and information science editors in West Africa in Ibadan Nigeria in 2003. I was a resource person on the programmes. Other training courses were held for young LIS librarians and lecturers on conducting and reporting research activities in 2002 and 2005. The proceedings were published.

Mr. Vice-Chancellor Sir, the lecture has highlighted the value of information and record keeping to mankind from the beginning of creation. It has also considered the importance of selecting the appropriate channels in communicating information. Knowledge transfer is crucial for national development. Thus, libraries play a very important role in documentation and preservation of oral and written information; providing access to literature in audio, printed and electronic and virtual formats. Technology is pervasive in the 21st century. It has become a way of life and so must be embraced by all for effective teaching, learning, research, and library and information services in Nigeria as in the advanced countries of the world

Mr. Vice-Chancellor, Sir, I would like to make the following recommendations to society at large, using the very special guests at this lecture as the point of contact—the University Management, heads of institutions of higher learning and the government, on how to accelerate the development of technology and promote the acceptance and adoption.

Lecturers need to invest more in technology for their personal use and to increase their access to timely information and literature wherever they are, even when outside their work stations.
The universities need to have more of ICT centres and laboratories for teaching and staff training. Improved internet access, increased bandwidth and rooms with multi-media facilities should be built and furnished to facilitate technology use.
Lecturers need to encourage virtual interaction with their students. This should be emphasized even more for distance education programmes in Nigeria.
Library and information science schools in Nigeria are to review their curriculums constantly to reflect global trends in ICT development and use and the market demands from new graduates in the profession.
Better funding of technology by the stakeholders, especially the government at all levels, is recom-mended.
Knowledge, awareness and observance of information ethics, including plagiarism and cyberethics, should be promoted among students, researchers and lecturers as ethical issues in information technology use have become front burner issues globally.
Synergy on training between universities and profes-sional associations like Nigerian Library Association and the International Federation of Libraries, Associations and Institutions (IFLAI), should be strengthened in order to live up to trends in library and information science.

I thank God Almighty for life, good health and His abundant Grace on me and all my family members. To Him be all honour and glory. The Vice-Chancellor Sir, thank you for your support. I thank the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Administration), Professor E. Aiyelari, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic), Professor Adeyinka A. Aderinto, and the Dean of the Faculty of Education, Professor M.K. Akinsola, for giving me the opportunity to present this lecture on behalf of the Faculty of Education.
I appreciate the effort of the Acting Head, Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies, Dr. K.I.N. Nwalo, towards this lecture. I want to acknowledge my mentor, mother and supervisor of my doctoral thesis, Professor Adetowun Ogunsheye. She gave me appointment after a brief chat immediately I returned from the United States of America and I assumed duty the week after on January 6, 1976. Professor Bimpe Aboyade, another mentor, encouraged all of us to work hard and progress academically. In particular, I wish to acknowledge the confidence reposed in me by giving me an appointment as Research Librarian at Development Policy Centre, Ibadan. I obtained leave from the University for three years. The experience and remuneration went a long way in enriching me professionally and providing comfort for my family after the demise of my husband. Some of my vintage in the Department who contributed to the happy days and professional development in the Department are: Professors W.O. Aiyepeku, B.C. Nzotta, Gbade Alabi, Morayo Atinmo, David Elaturoti, and G.O. Alegbeleye; Mrs. Aderonke Fetuga, late Professor Benson Edoka, Mr. D.K. Gupta, Mrs. K.G. Okpako, and Professor Isola Ajiferuke in Canada. I thank you all for the friendship of over four decades.
I have to make special mention of Professor L.O. Aina, who was a colleague in LARIS Department, but later went to lecture at the University of Botswana for eighteen years. On moving to Botswana, he suggested that we should do collaborative research on African issues in LIS so that we could compare the Southern and West African sub-regions. The concept of the African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science (AJLAIS), later emerged. We have collaborated to carry out some research studies, publish the journal and train information professionals on writing skills and journal publishing in Nigeria and other African countries in the last 30 years. Professor L.O. Aina is now the National Librarian and the CEO of the National Library of Nigeria. I thank him very much.
I want to acknowledge the contribution of the Faculty of Education Inaugural Lecture Committee and LARIS Departmental Committee members, the Publishing House staff, the University Media Centre staff and all other functionaries who ensured the fantastic arrangement for this lecture. I thank my colleagues who contributed to this scholarly presentation: Professor Oyesoji Aremu, Dr. A.A. Abioye, Dr. Airen Adetimirin, Mr. Benson Oweghoro, Mr. Sunday Oyebamiji, Drs. Bambo Oduwole, C.A. Okiki, Yetunde Zaid; and my doctoral students: Biola Hamzat, Bola Adeagbo, Titi Ilesanmi, Bola Adewunmi, Adefunke Babarinde, Oluchi Iwuagwu, Wale Oyewole and Olaide Akinbo, towards the writing of this lecture. I miss late Mr. H.I.T. Akinyosoye today and always, RIP. I appreciate the support of all my colleagues and the non-teaching staff in LARIS Department. You have all been supportive and good to me. I thank all my former students and those presently at all levels, for the academic challenges they gave me especially as I prepared and delivered my lectures over the years.
My gratitude also goes to my former doctoral students who have become my co-researchers: Dr. Adetoun Idowu, Prof. Ibrahim Haruna, Drs. Bambo Oduwole, Kitan Akinboro, Fadeke Oyewusi, Airen Adetimirin, C. Okiki, Uluocha Anyaogu, Margaret Ekenna, Jide Owoeye, Darlington Imeremba, Funke Ebijuwa, and Oluwaseun Obasola. I appreciate all my fellow information professionals at ARCIS, Centre for Educational Media Resource Studies, and all staff, old and present students of LARIS Department and the Faculty of Education with whom I have interacted in the last forty years. I have been accorded high respect and trust throughout my career in the University. God will continue to bless you all as the Faculty attains higher heights. I acknowledge the support of all Library and Information professionals in Kenneth Dike Library and in all other libraries in Nigeria, many of whom are present here today. May the information profession continue to be more visible and relevant.
I acknowledge old students of my alma-mata, Christ’s School, Ado Ekiti and University of Ife, now Obafemi Awolowo University. I thank God for my good neighbours at Orogun, Ibadan. I want to specially thank Hon. Justice and Mrs. Lambe Arasi, Chief and Alhaja Bayo Oyero, Mr. Kehinde Awolude, and the Idi-Iraye Landlords Association.
My spiritual life has been highly lifted up by the priests and laity of Immanuel College Chapel, Samonda, my family church. I thank Ven. Dr. C.A. Adagbada, and all ministers, members of the Women’s Forum and all Chapel members; I also acknowledge the Chaplain and members of the Chapel of The Resurrection, University of Ibadan, where I also worship.
Special thanks go to all my friends, too many to mention individually. I have been richly blessed by the tons of love and support which I received, especially during the tough times. Some of my many friends are: Mrs. Remi Fawehinmi, Professor Tolu and Chief (Mrs.) Titi Odugbemi, Professor and Mrs. Adedoyin Soyibo, Professor Michael Omolewa, Professor Olufemi Bamiro, Mrs. Bimpe Filani, Mrs. Iyabo Ogunsola, Mrs. Bukky Ajayi, Mrs. Funke Ige, Mrs. Funke Ajakaiye, Professor Dele and Mrs. Ajike Sanni, Professor and Mrs. Wole Osonubi, Professor and Dr. S.K. Adeyoju, Professor and Mrs. Bisi Adebowale, Mrs. Funso Ogundola, Chief (Mrs.) Ronke Okusanya, Mrs. Ronke Fetuga, Professor and Mrs. Bode Lucas, Mrs. Dupe Akinrinmade, Mrs. Bola Agbaje, Arc and Mrs. Folake Bademosi, Dr. Jide and Mrs. Sola Olumeko, Professor Dele and Mrs. Kike Osinusi, Mrs. Tayo Ikotun, Mrs. Deola Shyllon, Mrs. Ladun Akinnawo, Professor and Mrs. Theo Jerome, Professor and Mrs. Idowu Farai, Professor M.A.Y. Raji, Dr. and Mrs. Jimi Jinadu, Dr. and Mrs. Ayo Ajelabi and many others who are here present.
At the family level, I start with my parents, who nurtured and taught me to be forthright and that honesty is always the best policy, I thank God for my father, Chief Jacob Oluwole Fakorede, a highly responsible and loving father and my mother, Chief Mrs. Augusta Omolara Fakorede, a mother in Israel. May you continue to rest in peace. My siblings and their families (and they are here) Engineer Oladapo Fakorede, Pharmacist Ademola Fakorede, Mrs. Beky Neff and Mrs. Olufolake Adeniyi. You have all been wonderful and loving siblings. I also thank your spouses, their families and all my relatives all over the world for their love. All friends of my late husband and all our family friends who are here and many others, I appreciate your love and support. I thank very specially all my in-laws: Mr. Jide Oyenuga and all relatives and in-laws from Sagamu, Ijebu Ode, Ikorodu, Ibadan, Ifon, Ile-Ife, Ondo and Ekiti States for giving me peace of mind. God bless you all.
I dedicate this lecture to the memory of my late husband, Professor Adewale Folarin Mabawonku, an erudite scholar and professor in the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan. How I wish he is alive to witness this day. Unfortunately, the cold hands of death took him away from me and the very young children twenty two years ago. He encouraged me as a friend, lover, husband and mentor. I am eternally grateful and indebted to him for his contribution to my life. The Grace of God has sustained us till this blessed day. Halleluyah! Continue to rest in perfect peace.
I thank my sons: Olumide, Ayotunde, Tolulope and Olaolu. You have been too loving, caring and the best sons in the whole world. You will all live long in abundant health and prosperity. My daughters: Bolanle, Sola and Funmi, I appreciate you. You have given me and the family lots of love. My grand children: Tiwa, Kunmi, Mayo, Folarin, Tumi, Nifemi and Gbemisola, you will blossom and make us proud. God is good, He has done us well. Oh my soul, rise up and praise the Lord!

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__________. 2001. Providing information for capacity building: The role of an NGO library in Nigeria. Information Development 17(2): 100-106.
__________. 2001. Trends in library and information science research in Africa, 1991-2000. African Journal of Library Archives and Information Science 11(2): 79-88.
__________. 2001. Potentials of internet use in information provision to policy makers in Nigeria. Nigerian Libraries 35(2): 51-62.
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__________. 2003. Application of technology in distance learning: Case study of three Nigerian universities. Nigerian Libraries 37(2): 34-45.
__________. 2004. Library use in distance learning: A survey of undergraduates in three Nigerian universities. African Journal of Library Archives and Information Science 14(2): 14.
__________. 2004. Towards meeting the information needs of artisans: Case study of artisans in Ibadan, Nigeria. Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science 2(2): 20.
__________. 2006. The information environment of women in Nigeria’s public service. Journal of Documentation 62(1): 73-90.
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Professor Iyabo Mabawonku was born on 3rd April 1948 at Ile-Ife, Nigeria, into the family of late Chief Jacob Oluwole Fakorede and Chief (Mrs.) Augusta Omolara Fakorede (nee Shogbesan). Her father was a civil servant. Her mother was a teacher and later, a successful business woman. She is the first of five children in a monogamous family.
She started schooling at Mapo Day School, Mapo, Ibadan at the age of six years. When her father was transferred to Akure in 1958, she transferred to CAC Primary School, Akure, and in 1959 she entered primary six at St. Saviours Primary School, Ado-Ekiti. She attended Ekiti Anglican Girls’ Secondary School (now Christ’s Girls School), Ado-Ekiti, from 1960 to 1964 for secondary school education, and Christ’s School, Ado Ekiti for the Higher School Certificate from 1965 to 1966. At Christ’s School, she was the Senior Prefect (Girls) in 1966. She got admission to the University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University) in 1967 to study English and Philosophy. She graduated in June 1970. She immediately proceeded to the University of Ibadan to study for the Post Graduate Diploma in Librarianship. There was no Masters degree programme in librarianship in Nigeria then.
She worked as Librarian II at the Federal Department of Agricultural Research Library, Moor Plantation Ibadan from 1972 to 1974. She later proceeded to Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA to study for a Masters degree in Educational Media Technology. Professor Mabawonku had an appointment as a graduate assistant at Michigan State University. She developed some multi-media instructional packages for youths in the 4H Youth Programme in Michigan State, USA. In January 1976, she was employed as an Assistant Lecturer at the then Department of Library Studies, now the Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies, University of Ibadan. She obtained her doctoral degree in 1987. She was promoted to the rank of Senior Lecturer in 1985, Reader in 2000, and Professor with effect from October 2004.
As an academic, she has conducted many research studies individually, and jointly with colleagues. Professor Mabawonku has published over 60 journal articles and papers in conference proceedings. She has supervised over 200 Master’s degree students’ projects and graduated 11 doctoral candidates. Two more are likely to join by the end of this session. She was a recipient of Senate Research Grant of the University (two times). Professor Mabawonku has served her Department and the University in many ways. She was the Acting Head of Department of Library, Archival and Information Studies between 2007 and 2008, and Head of Department from 2008 to 2011. She is a member of the Faculty of Education Board of Studies and has been a member of the Senate of the University since 2007. She has served on various committees in the University.
Outside the University of Ibadan, Professor Mabawonku has contributed immensely to other universities. She has served as an external examiner in the following institutions: Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijebu-Ode, University of Ghana, Legon, University of Botswana, Gaborone, and University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. She has also assessed papers of candidates for the post of professorship in library schools and libraries in Nigeria, Ghana and Sierra Leone. She was a member of the NUC Accreditation Teams to some universities and has served as Chairman of a panel for accreditation of programmes in Library and Information Science departments in Nigerian universities four times. She is a member of the African Network on Information Ethics (ANIE) which was formed ten years ago. The Network, aims to promote ethical use of information in this era of high technology use and unethical use of information, is funded by the University of Wisconsin, USA, University of Pretoria, South Africa, and the South African Government Department of Telecommunication.
She is a member of some professional associations, including the Nigerian Library Association and the International Federation of Library and Information Association (IFLAI). She has served on the editorial board of many scholarly journals, including Nigerian Libraries and the African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science which has been published in the last 26 years. She has served as a resource person at many workshops locally and outside the country and has attended and presented papers at many conferences in Nigeria and other countries like: Zimbabwe, Senegal, South Africa, Italy, Puerto Rico, Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and USA. During the conference, at Washington DC, a tour was conducted round the Library of Congress, the biggest library in the world, situated at the US Congress in Washington DC, USA. She enjoys traveling and has visited many countries in Africa, Europe, North America and the Middle East.
Professor Iyabo Mabawonku was married to late Professor Adewale Folarin Mabawonku, formerly of the Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan. He died in active service in 1994. She is blessed with four sons, three daughters and seven grandchildren.


Arise, O compatriots
Nigeria’s call obey
To serve our fatherland
With love and strength and faith
The labour of our heroes’ past
Shall never be in vain
To serve with heart and might
One nation bound in freedom
Peace and unity

O God of creation
Direct our noble cause
Guide thou our leaders right
Help our youths the truth to know
In love and honesty to grow
And living just and true
Great lofty heights attain
To build a nation where peace
And justice shall reign

Unibadan, fountainhead
Of true learning, deep and sound
Soothing spring for all who thirst
Bounds of knowledge to advance
Pledge to serve our cherished goals!
Self-reliance, unity
That our nation may with pride
Help to build a world that is truly free

Unibadan, first and best
Raise true minds for a noble cause
Social justice, equal chance
Greatness won with honest toil
Guide our people this to know
Wisdom’s best to service turned
Help enshrine the right to learn
For a mind that knows is a mind that’s free


Mr Felix N Ubogu left this world for a higher mission

Felix N Ubogu was one of my postgraduate student at the University of Ibadan (Nigeria). I feel very sorry and sad on his premature untimely demise in South Africa where he has been serving as the University Librarian. I will be writing a short note about him later, here are some of the obituaries written by his Vice- Chancellor and Nigerian Library Associations etc.

MESSAGE FROM THE WITS VICE-CHANCELLOR AND PRINCIPAL (University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg)

Dear Colleagues

It is with great sadness that the University learnt of the passing of Mr Felix Ubogu, the University’s Librarian yesterday. Mr Ubogu passed away after a prolonged illness and will be sorely missed by his colleagues at Wits with whom he has built close relationships in the last 15 years.

Mr Ubogu joined Wits in 2000 from Rhodes University, where he served as its chief librarian.

He will be remembered for spearheading the digitisation of university libraries and for initiating the move towards digitising theses, with the aim of spreading African scholarship across the globe. In recognition of him using the e-environment to advance scholarship, Mr Ubogu was named the recipient of the Electronic Theses and Dissertation (ETD) Leadership Award in 2011.

Mr Ubogu advocated the benefits of ETD which ultimately led to the formation of the National Electronic Theses and Dissertations project funded by the National Research Foundation. He chaired the Advisory Committee of the Database of African Theses and Dissertations Pilot Project from July 2000 to February 2005. From 2003 to 2004 he served as the Project Manager of a UNESCO pilot project to improve the management of and access to theses and dissertations.

He has hosted several international conferences and seminars on ETD and related topics. In 2009 he was one of the organisers of the First International Conference on African Digital Libraries and Archives. He has served on the Board of the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, the Editorial Board of the African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science, and has also been a member of the Board of the South African Library for the Blind.

Mr Ubogu was also known for campaigning for the use of multimedia in dissertations and for expanding the University’s electronic databases, research analysis tools and software acquisitions.

Felix is survived by his wife and three children. Our deepest sympathies are extended to his family, colleagues and friends, during this difficult period. The University will announce further details about his funeral and memorial service after consultation with his family.

Vice-Chancellor and Principal

5 June 2015


Dear colleagues,

The passing on of Mr. Felix Ubogu was indeed a great loss as enumerated by Mr. Abraham Azubuike. I was opportuned to have met Mr. Ubogu twice in South Africa when I travelled for a program organized by in 2002 and at Durban for IFLA WLIC in 2007. In all my discussions at those times I found him to be a very humble personality and a professional librarian to the core. Many of my colleagues from SA any time we are discussing LIS issues with them they would say that a Nigerian is a University Librarian at Wits. His commitment and devotion to the library profession is outstanding. Back home Mr. Ubogu contributed immensely to the growth of the NLA when he served as the chair OYO state chapter in the 80s. The seriousness with which he takes his work earned him the respect of very many librarians in SA including the Vice Chancellor/Principal of his university at Wits. He made Nigerian librarians proud by excelling in his work in another country. I was actually looking forward to meeting him at the next IFLA WLIC in Cape Town in August 2015 but Alas! It wasn’t to be…
I put a call through to his wife Mrs. Funmi Ubogu this afternoon in SA and extend the condolence of the entire members of the NLA and prayed the Almighty to console them over this great loss.

Adieu Mr. Felix Ubogu!

Rilwanu Abdulsalami,CLN,FNLA
President, Nigerian Library Association (NLA)&
Chairman NBFT
Sent from my iPad

We are deeply saddened by Felix’s passing.

Felix worked was Principal Librarian for Technical Services in IITA, Ibadan; and Faculty of Technology Librarian in the University of Ibadan, before moving to Southern Africa where he had a great career leading top research universities.

He led the Oyo State Chapter of the Nigerian Library Association (in the 1980s) creditably, and initiated and led several international digital library projects. Felix was the Co-Founder and Chairman of the Convening and Standing committees of the International Conference on African Digital Libraries and Archives (ICADLA).

This is a great loss to Nigerian and International librarianship. We will miss his inspiring leadership and friendship.

May his soul enjoy a perfect repose.

Abraham Azubuike,
New York,
Interim Chairman,

Padmapadacharya; Guru-Sishya Parampara

PadamacharyyaPadmapadacharya’s life exemplifies the Guru-Sishya relationship. For Padmapadacharya, the Guru is everything and the command of Guru is ultimate. Once when he was on the opposite bank of a river, Sankara who was on the other side called him, and Padmapadacharya, without even thinking that he might be drowned in a swollen river began walking and lo! behold ! a lotus appeared on every step that he would take and hold his feet from drowning – and that is why he came to be known as Padma-Pada – Lotus – Feet. His devotion exemplifies the hoary relationship of Guru and Shishya.

The story goes like this: He was Shankra’s first disciple and shankra gave him the name :SANANDANA:

When Sanandana and a few other disciples were once on the other bank of the river Ganga, the Acharya called them to come to him. No boat was available. But Sanandana, secure in faith and grace of the Acharya, stepped on the water and began to walk. Struck with his devotion, the divine Ganga showed her admiration by placing lotuses on the water to support his feet at every step. To the astonishment of all, he unconcernedly crossed over to the other bank where he was duly rewarded by the embrace of the Acharya. It was a mark of affection, which no other disciple had ever received. In memory of this incident, he was henceforth known as Padmapada at the desire of the Acharya.

There are other stories also about his devotion and dedication for his Guru but the above story is the most popular  one.

Thar Desert, Rajasthan

Thar DesertWhile working for ONGC, during 1968-69, I was posted in Jodhpur to work in a seismic party headed by SK Verma.We were working deep in the Thar desert very near to the Pakistan boarder . The experience living and working in that area is worth describing here.Personal experience of living in that special and harsh environmental conditions and dealing with different kinds of people working in the party is really quite unique. In fact, the people including the party chief sent over here to work in this exploration party were under punishment of some kind or the other , transferred as the bosses in Head Quarters were not happy with them. Dealing with such people was not easy. NC Sharma, PN Mathur were other two more geophysicists working in the party. We were working in Ghotaru area covering upto Kishan Garh. Names of the places were given not as they were the villages or townships of any kind but they were known with other identifiable marks like a water well etc.

From Jodhpur to our camp Ghotaru, one has to go through Jaisalmer , Ramgarh, Gamnewala and Longenwala. Jodhpur to Jaisalmer was a tar road and Jaisalmer is the last or terminal Railway station in this area; also Jaisalmer is the biggest town in Thar desert area with lots of tourist attractions.From Jaisalmer to Ramgarh is also tar road and Ramgarh is also the last small town with stable population in this area. After Ramgarh, there is no road , it is only the desert with sand dunes of varying sizes. We have to change our mud tred tires to sand tred tires in Ram Garh. Our drivers were very experienced ones from the local area and knew every bit of the place. It was possible to reach from one place to another only with these expert drivers. Our vehicles were strong ones with high powered engines , could climb those sand dunes without much problems. The journey from Ram Garh to ghotaru was really trachorous , difficult with lots of ups and downs on the sand dunes. The desert is just empty without any visible vegetation or living animals. The journey is monotonous and full with wilderness.

Ramanujan : A great Mathematician

Ramanujan : a great mathematician
Dec 22, 1887 – Apr 26, 1920 (32 yrs)
See also his Magic Square

Srinivasa Ramanujan, FRS, was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions. As he had no access to large community of mathematicians, he developed his own mathematical research in isolation. As a result, he sometimes rediscovered known theorems in addition to producing new work. Ramanujan was said to be a natural genius by the English mathematician GH Hardy.

Ramanujan was born in a poor Braahman family. His father’s name was K Srinivasa Iyengar and his mother’s name was Kamalatammal. His father was a clerk at a Saree shop and his mother used to sing at a temple. They lived on Sarangpani Street in Kumbakonam, Tamil Naadu. He was divinely inspired. When his grand-mother Rangammal, an ardent devotee of Goddess Namagiri (the Goddess of their family deity Lord Narasinh Temple in Namakkal, Tamil Naadu) went to the Temple, she went into a trance and supposedly the Goddess spoke to her and said that – “The Goddess herself will speak to the world through her daughter’s son”.

He was formally introduced to Mathematics at the age of 10. He mastered the books on advanced trigonometry written by SL Loney by the age of 12. He even discovered theorems of his own, and re-discovered Euler’s identity independently. He demonstrated unusual mathematical skills at school, winning accolades and awards. By 17, Ramanujan had conducted his own mathematical research on Bernoulli numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni constant.

Ramanujan received a scholarship to study at Government College in Kumbakonam, but lost it when he failed his non-mathematical coursework. He joined another college to pursue independent mathematical research, working as a clerk in the Accountant-General’s office at the Madras Port Trust Office to support himself. In 1909, he was married to a 9-year old girl – Janaki Ammal, at the age of 21 years.

Ramanujan in England
In 1912–1913, he sent samples of his theorems to three academics at the University of Cambridge. One mathematician MJM Hill told that he lacked educational background and foundation to be needed by mathematicians. Still he gave him professional advice on whose basis he wrote to three professors in the University of Cambridge. HF Baker and EW Hobson returned his work. Then he wrote to GH Hardy with his 9 pages of work which he thought he was a fraud. But some of his formulae got his attention and recognizing the brilliance of his work, invited him to visit and work with him at Cambridge. He worked with him for nearly 5 years. Here it was a clash of different cultures, beliefs and working styles. Hardy was an atheist and an apostle of proof and mathematical rigor, whereas Ramanujan was a deeply religious man and relied very strongly on his intuition.

He got a BA degree, which was later converted in a PhD degree, in 1916. He became a FRS (Fellow of the Royal Society) in 1918 becoming the second and the youngest Indian, following Ardaseer Cursetjee in 1841. He became the first Indian to be elected as a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge in 1918. He could not tolerate the living conditions outside India being a vegetarian he fell ill and suffered with Tuberculosis and severe vitamin deficiency. He came back from there in 1919 and soon after he died of illness, malnutrition, and possibly liver infection in 1920 at the age of 32.

Ramanujan’s Notebooks
Ramanujan had written his work in 4 notebooks on loose leaves before going to England. Most of them were without derivation. Since paper was very scare in those days and the slate was very popular for solving problems, he must have used slate. The 1st notebook had 351 pages, with 16 somewhat organized chapters and rest unorganized. The 2nd notebook was of 256 pages, under 21 chapters and 100 unorganized pages. His 3rd notebook contained 33 unorganized pages. And the 4th notebook contained 87 unorganized pages – it was rediscovered in 1976.

He credited all his knowledge to his family Goddess, Namagiri of Namakkal. There are two interesting incidents in Ramanujan’s life that I wish to share here —

(1) Meeting with Mahalanobis
Once one Sunday morning PC Mahalanobis (who founded the Indian Statistical Institute in Calcutta and also become a Fellow of the Royal Society) went to meet Ramanuja in Whewell’s Court. Mahalanobis said to him – “Now, here is a problem for you.” He told he used to visit a Belgian friend whose house was on a long street. They were numbered on this side 1, 2, 3 and so on, and that all the numbers on one side of him added up exactly the same as all the numbers on the other side of him. He knew that there were more than fifty houses but not so many as five hundred. He wanted to know his friend’s house number.

Through trial and error, Mahalanobis had figured out the answer. Ramanujan figured out too but he gave a general solution to the problem using continued fraction. A continued fraction whose denominator consists of a number plus a fraction, ad infinitum. As stated, the problem had one solution – house number 204 in a street of 288 houses – i.e., 1 + 2 + 3 —- + 203 = 205 + 206 + —- + 288. But without the 50 to 500 house constraint, there were other solutions – for example, house number 6 in a street containing 8 houses – i.e., 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 = 7 + 8. Ramanujan’s continued fraction comprised within a single expression – all the correct answers. Mahalanobis was astounded. How interesting!

“The limitations of his knowledge were as startling as its profundity,” Hardy would write. Mahalanobis was also a great Mathematician. In fact, Pandit Nehru liked him a lot. And when Nehru asked him – “How to solve India’s poverty?”, Mahalanobis immediately wrote a very long equation with Partial Differentials that filled the whole black board. Then he explained, each and every variable in the equation again completely zapping Nehru.

(2) Meeting with Hardy
Once GH Hardy came to meet Ramanujan in a taxi from London. Hardy noticed the number – it was 1729. He thought little about the number and said it was “rather a dull number”. Ramanujan immediately retorted, “No, Hardy, it is a very interesting number. It is the SMALLEST NUMBER that can be expressed as the sum of TWO CUBES in TWO DIFFERENT WAYS”. That is, it is the smallest number that can be expressed as 12 x 12 x 12 + 1 x 1 x 1 but also as 10 x 10 x 10 + 9 x 9 x 9. How interesting! Coincidentally, 1729 is also a Carmichael Number.

His Work
During his short lifetime, Ramanujan independently compiled nearly 3900 results (mostly identities and equations). Most of his claims have now been proven correct, although a small number of these results were actually false and some were already known.

He has produced a square with numbers – it is really superb. Would you like to see it – Click here to see that square. Ramanujam has given the method as how to draw a magic square involving any important date, not only birth day, except a few. In Kharuraho Paarashwanaath Jain temple (10th century ) one can find a magic square engraved.

7 12 1 14
2 13 8 11
16 3 10 5
9 6 15 4
This is referred to as the Chaunteesaa Yantra, since each row, each column, each diagonal, 2 x 2 sub-squares the corners of each 3 x 3 and 4 x 4 square, the two sets of four symmetrical numbers (1 + 11 + 16 + 6 and 2 + 12 + 15 + 5), and the sum of the middle two entries of the two outer columns and rows (12 + 1 + 6 + 15 and 2 + 16 + 11 + 5), sums to 34.

In recognition of his contributions, the Government of India has declared Ramanujan’s birthday (22 December) should be celebrated every year as National Mathematics Day, and also declared 2012 as the National Mathematical Year.

Read: The Man who knew infinity : A life of the genius Ramanujan: Robert Kanigel